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Full text of "Alaskan glacier studies of the National Geographic Society in the Yakutat Bay, Prince William Sound and lower Copper River regions"

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GLACIERS OF ALASKA                                          5
Taku Glacier for which the names Schulze Glacier and Foster Glacier Were temporarily used, is 80 miles long, heading to the north on a 5,500-foot snow divide as a through glacier, the other end of which flows down the east side of the Canadian Coast Range. This may be the Llewellyn Glacier1 of Atlin Lake. To the northwest it shares snowfields as a through glacier with Mendenhall and Herbert Glaciers of Lynn Canal and Norris Glacier of Taku Inlet. Taku Glacier receives at least ten tributaries, from a half mile to a mile and a half wide, the main glacier being two to three miles wide. It gives off two glacial distributaries, one of which feeds the west half of the Twin Glaciers of Taku Inlet. The sea front is a little over a mile wide and 200 feet high and has been described by Vancouver,2 Muir,8 Russell,* and many others.8 Taku Glacier suffered severely during the Yakutat Bay earthquakes of September, 1899, but had a net advance between 1890 and 1905.° Norris Glacier, to which the name Windom Glacier was temporarily applied, is reported7 to have lost part of its end following the 1899 earthquakes, perhaps because of washing away of supporting gravels.
Glaciers East of Lynn Canal. On the east side of this great fiord a group of glaciers descend from the snowfields of the Canadian Coast Range, the better-known valley glaciers, named in order from Juneau northward to Skagway, being the Mendenhall,8 Herbert, Eagle, Meade,8 and Ferebee Glaciers. They are well shown on a number of maps.10
Besides these large glaciers that bear names there are as many glaciers of equal size that are as yet unnamed because not seen from Lynn Canal, as for example the five glaciers terminating ten to fifteen miles back from Lynn Canal in the valleys draining to Berners Bay. There are also hundreds of minor glaciers, such as the Lemon Creek Glacier and others near Juneau,11 and the glaciers on the north side of Lion's Head Mountain, Berners Bay.12
The region from which the Mendenhall, Taku, and adjacent glaciers extend is a typical ice-flooded region, an area of many square miles between Taku Inlet, Lynn Canal, and the international boundary having, according to the map, a larger proportion of snow-fields and valley glaciers than of projecting mountain ridges and isolated peaks. Many of the ice tongues are through glaciers.
i Gwfllim, J. C., Geol. Survey of Canada, Ann. Kept., Vol. XII, 1902, pp. 14B-15B and map 742. « Quoted by Klotz, Geog. Journ, Vol. XTV, 1899, p. 531. ' Muir, John, Amer. Geol., XI, 1893, p. 293.
< Russell, I. C., Glaciers of North America, Boston, 1897, pp. 78-80.
< For example, Davidson, George, Trans, and Proc. Geog. Soc. Pacific, Vol. HI, 1904, pp. 79-81. Egerton, H. G., Alaska and Its Glaciers, Nineteenth Century, Vol. 32, p. 1001.
BGggmaon, Ella, Alaska, the Great Country, New York, 1908, pp. 110-113.
Greely, A. W., Handbook of Alaska, New York, 1909, pp. 153-154.
e Reid, H. F., Variations of Glaciers, Journ. Geol., Vol. XIII, 1905, p. 817; Same, Vol. XIV, 1906, p. 408.
»Reid, H. P., Variations of Glaciers, Journ. Geol., Vol. XI, 1901, p. 253.
• Knopf, A., Bull. 502, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1912, pp. 11-13, 32-33, and PI. I.
•Sheldon, Charles, The Wilderness of the Upper Yukon, New York, 1911, pp. 172-174. » Coast Survey Charts 8050, 8300, 8302, 8303.
Atlas of Award, Alaskan Boundary Tribunal, Charts IS, 16a, 17.
Bull. 287, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1906, PI. XXXVni.
H Eldridge, G. H., Maps and Descriptions of Routes of Exploration in Alaska in 1898, U. S. Geol. Survey, Washington, 1899, p. 102.
Juneau Special Map, 1904, U. S. Geol. Survey.
" Knopf, A., Bull. 446, U. S. Geol. Survey, 1911, p. 12 and PI. I;    Berners Bay Special Map, Alaska, Sheet No. 581,1906, U. S. Geol. Survey.